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publication de l'étude originale dans Food & Chemical Toxicology: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691512005637
Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize
- a University of Caen, Institute of Biology, CRIIGEN and Risk Pole, MRSH-CNRS, EA 2608, Esplanade de la Paix, Caen Cedex 14032, France
- b University of Verona, Department of Neurological, Neuropsychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, Verona 37134, Italy
- c University of Caen, UR ABTE, EA 4651, Bd Maréchal Juin, Caen Cedex 14032, France
The health effects of a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize (from 11% in the diet), cultivated with or without Roundup, and Roundup alone (from 0.1 ppb in water), were studied 2 years in rats. In females, all treated groups died 2–3 times more than controls, and more rapidly. This difference was visible in 3 male groups fed GMOs. All results were hormone and sex dependent, and the pathological profiles were comparable. Females developed large mammary tumors almost always more often than and before controls, the pituitary was the second most disabled organ; the sex hormonal balance was modified by GMO and Roundup treatments. In treated males, liver congestions and necrosis were 2.5–5.5 times higher. This pathology was confirmed by optic and transmission electron microscopy. Marked and severe kidney nephropathies were also generally 1.3–2.3 greater. Males presented 4 times more large palpable tumors than controls which occurred up to 600 days earlier. Biochemistry data confirmed very significant kidney chronic deficiencies; for all treatments and both sexes, 76% of the altered parameters were kidney related. These results can be explained by the non linear endocrine-disrupting effects of Roundup, but also by the overexpression of the transgene in the GMO and its metabolic consequences.
► A Roundup-tolerant maize and Roundup provoked chronic hormone and sex dependent pathologies. ► Female mortality was 2–3 times increased mostly due to large mammary tumors and disabled pituitary. ► Males had liver congestions, necrosis, severe kidney nephropathies and large palpable tumors. ► This may be due to an endocrine disruption linked to Roundup and a new metabolism due to the transgene. ► GMOs and formulated pesticides must be evaluated by long term studies to measure toxic effects..
- GM, genetically modified;
- R, Roundup;
- MRL, maximal residual levels;
- GMO, genetically modified organism;
- OECD, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development;
- GT, glutamyl-transferase;
- PCA, principal component analysis;
- PLS, partial least-squares;
- OPLS, orthogonal partial least-squares;
- NIPALS, Nonlinear Iterative Partial Least Squares;
- OPLS-DA, Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis;
- G, glycogen;
- L, lipid droplet;
- N, nucleus;
- R, rough endoplasmic reticulum (on microscopy pictures only);
- U, urinary;
- UEx, excreted in urine during 24 h;
- APPT, Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time;
- MCV, Mean Corpuscular Volume;
- PT, Prothrombine Time;
- RBC, Red Blood Cells;
- ALT, alanine aminotransferase;
- MCHC, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration;
- A/G, Albumin/Globulin ratio;
- WBC, White Blood Cells;
- AST, aspartate aminotransferase
- Glyphosate-based herbicides;
- Endocrine disrupting effects
Figures and tables from this article:
The protocol used in this work was compared to the regulatory assessment of NK603 maize by the company (Hammond et al., 2004), and to non mandatory regulatory in vivo tests for GMOs, or mandatory for chemicals (OECD 408). Most relevant results are shown in this paper.
After the number of pathological abnormalities, the number of rats reached is indicated in parentheses. In male animals pathological signs are liver congestions, macroscopic spots and microscopic necrotic foci. Hepatodigestive pathological signs concern the liver, stomach and small intestine (duodenum, ileum or jejunum). Only marked or severe chronic progressive nephropathies (CPN) are listed, excluding two nephroblastomas in groups consuming GMO 11% and GMO 22% + Roundup. In females, mammary fibroadenomas and adenocarcinomas are the major tumors detected; galactoceles and hyperplasias with atypia are also found and added in mammary glands pathological signs. Pituitary dysfunctions include adenomas, hyperplasias and hypertrophies. For details of the various treatment groups see Fig. 1.
OPLS-DA was performed on 48 variables at month 15. Here we showed mean differences (%) of variables (discriminant at 99% confidence level, in bold character) indicating kidney parameters of female animals, together with sex hormones. Male kidney pathologies are already illustrated in Table 2.
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